The young king and military genius, Alexander, had associated his name with speedy victory west of the Persian Empire even before he came against it (like a male goat from the west[1]). Alexander launched his war campaign against the Persians in 334 B.C. By 332, Darius III, king of Persia at the time, had already fled for his life before the skilled Macedonian forces. The entire world was in Alexander’s sights, and with the timeliness of a bullet, he brought it under his control. Hundreds of years before, Neubchadnezzar had dreamed of Grecia as being an image’s belly and thighs made of brass.[2] Not gold or silver, but speed of expansion characterized Alexander’s vast Empire. More fitting symbols could not be found for this power than a winged leopard[3] or a flying goat with one notable horn.[4] Only eight years after he had first marched against Persia, Alexander, the “notable horn,” led his final successful military campaign into India. Alexander conquered the world, but he never mastered his own dark passions. Ironically, the iconic king whose four-winged flight over the the west (Macedonia and Greece), the north (Asia Minor), the south (Egypt), and over the east (Syria, Babylonia, and India) had gained him a name synonymous with power and control died after an uncontrolled drinking frenzy in 323 B.C.

Upon his death bed, Alexander refused to appoint a successor. Thus, after his death, the Greco-Macedonian Empire was torn by a maelstrom of power struggles mainly between Alexander’s generals. Eventually, four of the generals gained control over the four territories which had previously made up the Empire. Ptolemy Lagides ruled the south territories in Egypt. Lysimachus ruled Asia Minor in the north. Seleucus took control of the eastern territories from Syria to India, and Cassander took Macedonia and Greece in the west. This division of Grecia was signified in the book of Daniel as four heads on the winged leopard[5] and as four notable horns pointing four ways and replacing the notable horn on the head of the male goat.[6] The division of Alexander’s kingdom after his death is described quite literally in Daniel 11:3-4.


[1] Daniel 8:5.

[2] Daniel 2:32.

[3] Daniel 7:6. Even without wings, a leopard represents swiftness in the Bible (Habakkuk 1:8).

[4] Daniel 8:5.

[5] Daniel 7:6.

[6] Daniel 8:8.

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